quebec bridge materials

This added difficulty to the fabrication of such unusually large members. What materials and systems were used in the construction of this structure? What were the causes of the structural failure? The bridge is immense, not only in length and weight but in width. The serious defects were fundamental errors in design. In its typical form cantilever arms projecting toward the center of the span from main piers are continuous with and counterbalanced by anchor arms extending between the main piers and anchor pier at each end.

In the end, “Cooper’s engineering expertise became the sole factor that was relied upon for assuring structural integrity of the bridge” (Roddis 1993). The disaster led to new research and testing methods and better designer-contractor coordination.

These were questioned by the bridge engineer for the railways and canals as being unusually high. This erroneous assumption was made by Mr. Szlapka and accepted by Mr. Cooper, and tended to hasten the disaster.”, “The loss of life on August 29, 1907, might have been prevented by the exercise of better judgment on the part of those in responsible charge of the work for the Quebec Bridge and Railway Company and for the Phoenix Bridge Company.”, “The failure on the part of the Quebec Bridge and Railway Company to appoint an experienced bridge engineer to the position of chief engineer was a mistake. Al- though the workers who failed to report to work because of the deformations lacked the technical expertise, they seemed to be the only ones who understood what was really happening to the bridge (Middleton 2001, p. 78). The engineers on site argued among themselves as to the cause. This error was of sufficient magnitude to have required the condemnation of the bridge, even if the details of the lower chords had been of sufficient strength, because, if the bridge had been completed as designed, the actual stresses would have been considerably greater than those permitted by the specifications. (1908) Royal Commission Quebec Bridge Inquiry Rep. Pearson, C., and Delatte, N. (2006). Currently there is no information available about persons or companies having participated in this project.

Cooper was a famous bridge builder and consultant out of New York City, and he was chosen to be the consulting engineer for the Quebec Bridge. The Quebec Bridge was the longest cantilever structure ever to be attempted during its day (Pearson and Delatte 2006, p. 85). Spanning the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City, the massive Quebec Bridge has a history of triumph and tragedy. The 1,800-foot cantilever span supports its weight 150 feet above the water to allow ocean-going vessels to pass below. The cable-stayed bridge ranks first for a span range approximately from 150 to 600 m, which has longer spanning capacity than that of cantilever bridges , truss bridges, arch bridges, and box girder bridges, but shorter than that of suspension bridges. The load transferred to the opposite A9R chord that also buckled (Pearson and Delatte 2006, pp. The piers were made of huge granite facing stones with concrete backing (Pearson and Delatte 2006, p. 87). The Quebec Bridge was 20 years in the making, from the found­ ing of the Quebec Bridge Company in 1887 to the bridge’s col­ lapse in 1907.

The members under the highest compression loads continued to buckle, and tensions grew on the worksite. The Quebec Bridge with its span of 1,801 feet, is still the world’s largest ever cantilever bridge. Structurae Version 7.0 - © 1998-2020 Nicolas Janberg. REGISTER FOR FREE. What were the consequences of the failure? The bridge is immense, not only in length and weight but in width.

American engineer Theodore Cooper was chosen to design it. It took three tries and cost 89 lives, but the city of Quebec was determined to compete with provincial rival Montreal for commercial rail traffic in the late 19th century. During the collapse, the workers were working on the cantilever arm. The ends of all the chords were shaped to allow for the small deflections that were expected to occur when the chords came under their full dead load. It remains the longest cantilever railroad span ever built. An independent consultant may not have allowed the higher than normal design stresses. Some of the other errors such as the underestimated dead loads and the failure to recheck the weight could have been dis- covered before the bridge collapsed. I n 1907 Quebec was building the biggest cantilever bridge in the world. Holgate, H., Derry, J., G. G., and Galbraith, J. The Quebec Bridge was to be one of the engineering wonders of the world. A year later, the bridge was finally complete. It took three tries and cost 89 lives, but the city of Quebec was determined to compete with provincial rival Montreal for commercial rail traffic in the late 19th century. What ethical lessons were learned from the failure? The splices initially touched only at one end, and would not fully transfer their load until they had deflected enough for full bearing at the splices. The solution was a rail bridge across the St. Lawrence River requiring a single cantilever span 1,800 feet long - the longest ever attempted. The weight of the suspended span and the cantilever arms is counterbalanced by that of the anchor arms and an anchorage embedded in the anchor pier” (175). His method of accounting for railroad loads on bridge structures became widely used (Middleton 2001, p. 37). These butt splices were bolted to allow for movement.

The redesigned span weighed two and a half times as much as the first bridge, demonstrating the inadequacy of the original design. Little did they know that on August 29 that they would also experience one of the largest bridge collapses in history. Form the mechanical point of view, the cable-stayed bridge is a continuous girder bridge supported by elastic supports. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design.”, “We do not consider that the specifications for the work were satisfactory or sufficient, the unit stresses in particular being higher than any established by past practice.

Undaunted, the city and its engineers made a third attempt, duplicating the second design. When completed it would be the largest structure of its kind and the longest bridge in the world, outstripping the famous Firth of Forth Bridge in Scotland. The erection foreman resumed worked the next day (the day before the collapse) without McLure’s permission, because he was confident the deflections were not a large concern. The curvature also in- creased the secondary stresses on the members, reducing their buckling capacity. Do you really want to delete this item from your favorites?

A simple span suspended between the two cantilever arms completes the structure. The piers were the only part of the structure that survived. Back at the construction site, at roughly the same time the supervisors in Phoenixville were ending their meeting, the Quebec Bridge collapsed at 5:30 p.m. Quebec Bridge is a road bridge, cantilever truss bridge and steel bridge that was completed in 1919. The specifications were accepted without protest by all interested.”, “A grave error was made in assuming the dead load for the calculations at too low a value and not afterwards revising this assumption. The new units’ stresses were accepted based solely on Cooper’s reputation. “Collapse of the Quebec Bridge, 1907.” J.Perform.Constr.Facil., Roddis, W. M. K. (1993) “Structural failures and engineering ethics.”, Group 062-10: Engineering Mistakes that caused Bridge Failures. Each pier rested on a concrete filled caisson that was 14.9 m wide, 7.6 m high, and 45.7 m long, weighing 16.2 MN (1,600 t) (Middleton 2001, pp. The bridge across the St. Lawrence River, six-mile above Quebec City, was the brainchild of the Quebec Bridge Company, a group of local business people. 48–50). As the drop-in span is lifted into position a stirrup fails and the structure falls into the waters killing 11 workers. In 1916, a redesigned 5,000-ton center span was jacked into place from barges, but as thousands of spectators watched, it too crashed into the river when a jack bearing failed. The project is located in Quebec, Capitale-Nationale, Quebec, Canada. This common practice made the fabrication of these members easier. The result was to be a rigid joint that transferred loads uniformly across its area to ensure only axial loading. Construction of the bridge officially began on October 2, 1900, after a grand ceremony. According to a letter written to. The fall of this massive bridge can be traced back to several technical factors. The causes of the failure are best summarized by the Royal Commission Report. His decisions were not questioned, even when they seemed to be unusual.

It would bridge the St. Lawrence River approximately 14 km north of Quebec connecting into the Grand Trunk rail line. What technical lessons were learned from the failure? He allowed 145 MPa for normal loading and 165 MPa under extreme loading conditions.

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